Household Energy Use – The Case of Switzerland

Modern societies need a considerable amount of energy, which is almost entirely used the three sectors industry (including services), mobility and household, at roughly equal parts. Thus, the energy consumed at home forms a substantial part of the entire final energy use.

In this posting we study the situation in Switzerland which is one of the most competitive and industrialized countries of Europe, though not being a member of the EU. All raw data for the subsequent investigation stem from Swiss Statistics which provides excellent information on all areas of consumption. In particular, we will focus on the period 2000-2010. The above-mentioned sectors had the following shares in the total final energy consumption in 2010: industry and services 35 %, mobility 34 % and household 30 %.

Total household energy use went up by 14.1% during the first decade of this century. However, this obvious increase does not take into account that the number of people living in Switzerland has also risen during that period. Thus, the relevant figure to look at is the consumption per capita, and here the situation looks quite different as can be seen in Fig. 1.

The trend line makes clear that the specific energy use per person has gone down over the years. The steep increase since 2007 is well in line with the number of heating degree days (HDD) following a similar pattern as can be seen in Fig. 2. Apparently, it has become colder between 2007 and 2010.

Fig. 2 Heating degree days (HDD) and heating effort in Swiss households.

The similarity between the red curves in Figs. 1 and 2 is not accidental, as more than 72 % of total household energy are used for heating purposes (in 2010). Thus, changes in the number of heating degree days should be reflected in the heating effort. Warm water makes up for another 12 % of household use while the remaining 16 % are shared among various sectors such as lighting, cooking, washing, drying, etc.

A closer look at the figures for warm water reveals that consumption has remained relatively stable (Fig. 3).  Taking into account the growing number of households (+ 11 %) during the period in question naturally leads to the conclusion that each household uses less and less warm water.

Fig. 3 Total energy used for warm water and consumption per household (/HH).

Fig. 4 shows the contribution of other sources of household energy use. Their aggregated consumption volume is relatively moderate as stated above. Nevertheless, as a whole they are not to be neglected although their individual shares are not as important as the ones for heating and warm water.

Fig. 4 Household energy use (except heating and warm water).

Whereas lighting, cooking and refrigerating (including freezing) have remained virtually unchanged over the years, washing (including drying) and miscellaneous have increased dramatically by 52 % and 32 %, respectively. This is well in line with a growing population as more people require more clothing to be washed. So there are some areas of energy consumption being more sensitive to the number of persons involved while others like lighting tend to be rather independent of population figures.

Thus, as stated in my previous posting, growing energy consumption figures (in absolute terms) should not be obscured by ignoring the simultaneous changes in the number of consumers. On an individual basis, we gradually tend to use less energy. This is the good news. But, of course, the crucial question is how much further we can get in becoming more energy efficient. Or, to put it differently, is there a limit and, if yes, where is it?

3 comments on “Household Energy Use – The Case of Switzerland

  1. Hi, just something coming up reading your text. In some of the studies I participated in, we checked possibility for central laundry facilities. Thus, instead of individual laundry machines per household, a central launderette, with larger equipment, but more efficient. Or first study results show that such a system can be more energy/water-efficient and also material-efficient (because less machines necessary). One thing to keep in mind is transport, therefore the launderette may not be located too far from the clients; so could be for sure an option for apartment buildings/sky scrapers.

    • Excellent point. Actually, there is a similar system in some apartment houses in Sweden where people use a common washing facility. Would be interesting to investigate this case further. Do you have any idea how much could be saved by using such a system?

  2. Your question “But, of course, the crucial question is how much further we can get in becoming more energy efficient. Or, to put it differently, is there a limit and, if yes, where is it?”
    The answer be found at the Oil Drum web site under “Galactic Scale Energy, Part 2: Can Economic Growth Last?” http://www.theoildrum.com/node/8185#more

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